Pain management during the withholding and withdrawal of life support in critically ill patients at the end-of-life: a systematic review and meta-analysis

This review of 13 international papers on pain control in end of life and withdrawal from life support showed that pain control mainly includes opioids and benzodiazepines. The dosages of these exceed those recommended by guidelines. Despite consistency among guidelines, there is significant variability in practices in end-of-life care. Early cooperation with palliative care services could improve the final care these patients receive.

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The European Federation of Critical Care Nursing Associations (EfCCNa) is a formal network of critical care nursing associations in Europe.